Questions | 5 |

Topics | Battery Configurations, Diodes, Insulators, Ohm's Law, Series Circuit |

Batteries can be connected together in various combinations to increase their total voltage and/or total current. Connecting batteries in **series** combines their voltage while keeping their current the same, connecting batteries in **parallel** combines their current while keeping their voltage the same, and using a **series-parallel** configuration, half the batteries can be connected in series and half in parallel to combine both voltage and current.

A diode allows current to pass easily in one direction and blocks current in the other direction. Diodes are commonly used for **rectification** which is the conversion of alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). Because a diode only allows current flow in one direction, it will pass either the upper or lower half of AC waves (**half-wave rectification**) creating pulsating DC. Multiple diodes can be connected together to utilize both halves of the AC signal in **full-wave rectification**.

Insulators have valence shells that are more than half full of electrons and, as such, are tightly bound to the nucleus and difficult to move from one atom to another.

Ohm's law specifies the relationship between voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R) in an electrical circuit: **V = IR**.

A series circuit has only one path for current to flow. In a series circuit, current (I) is the same throughout the circuit and is equal to the total voltage (V) applied to the circuit divided by the total resistance (R) of the loads in the circuit. The sum of the voltage drops across each resistor in the circuit will equal the total voltage applied to the circuit.