|Topics||Cell Division, Cell Energy, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Fermentation, Nucleus|
Cell division is the process by which cells replicate genetic material in the nucleus. Cell division consists of several phases:
|interphase||chromosomes replicate into chromatids and the cell grows|
|prophase||chromatids pair up|
|metaphase||paired chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell|
|anaphase||cell elongates and nucleus begins to separate|
|telophase||separation of nucleus is complete resulting in two new nuclei|
|cytokinesis||cytoplasm and cell membranes complete their separation resulting in two separate cells|
Some plant cells produce their own energy through photosynthesis which is the process by which sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water react to make sugar and oxygen. Animal cells cannot produce their own energy and, instead, generate energy when mitochondria consume outside sugar and oxygen through aerobic respiration.
Animal cells are surrounded by a semipermeable membrane which allows for the transfer of water and oxygen to and from the cell. In plant cells, the cell membrane is surrounded by a somewhat rigid cell wall which provides the cell structure and support.
The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell contains the genetic material of the cell and is surrounded by cytoplasm which contains many organelles. These include:
|endoplasmic reticulum||helps synthesize proteins and fats|
|Golgi apparatus||prepare proteins for use|
|lysosomes||help the cell manage waste|
|centrosomes||guide cell reproduction|
If no oxygen is present, cellular respiration is anaerobic and will result in fermentation where either lactic acid or alcohol is used instead of oxygen.
Cells are classified into one of two groups based on whether or not they have a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and therefore have a less complex structure than eukaryotic cells.