Cards | 10 |

Topics | Defining Exponents, Distributive Property - Division, Factors & Multiples, Probability, Rational Numbers, Ratios, Scientific Notation, Simplifying Radicals |

An exponent (cb^{e}) consists of **coefficient** (c) and a **base** (b) raised to a **power** (e). The exponent indicates the number of times that the base is multiplied by itself. A base with an exponent of 1 equals the base (b^{1} = b) and a base with an exponent of 0 equals 1 ( (b^{0} = 1).

The distributive property for division helps in solving expressions like \({b + c \over a}\). It specifies that the result of dividing a fraction with multiple terms in the numerator and one term in the denominator can be obtained by dividing each term individually and then totaling the results: \({b + c \over a} = {b \over a} + {c \over a}\). For example, \({a^3 + 6a^2 \over a^2} = {a^3 \over a^2} + {6a^2 \over a^2} = a + 6\).

A factor is a positive integer that divides evenly into a given number. The factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, and 8. A multiple is a number that is the product of that number and an integer. The multiples of 8 are 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

Probability is the numerical likelihood that a specific outcome will occur. Probability = \({ \text{outcomes of interest} \over \text{possible outcomes}}\). To find the probability that two events will occur, find the probability of each and multiply them together.

A rational number (or fraction) is represented as a ratio between two integers, a and b, and has the form \({a \over b}\) where a is the **numerator** and b is the **denominator**. An **improper fraction** (\({5 \over 3} \)) has a numerator with a greater absolute value than the denominator and can be converted into a **mixed number** (\(1 {2 \over 3} \)) which has a whole number part and a fractional part.

Ratios relate one quantity to another and are presented using a colon or as a fraction. For example, 2:3 or \({2 \over 3}\) would be the ratio of red to green marbles if a jar contained two red marbles for every three green marbles.

Scientific notation is a method of writing very small or very large numbers. The first part will be a number between one and ten (typically a decimal) and the second part will be a power of 10. For example, 98,760 in scientific notation is 9.876 x 10^{4} with the 4 indicating the number of places the decimal point was moved to the left. A power of 10 with a negative exponent indicates that the decimal point was moved to the right. For example, 0.0123 in scientific notation is 1.23 x 10^{-2}.

The radicand of a simplified radical has no perfect square factors. A **perfect square** is the product of a number multiplied by itself (squared). To simplify a radical, factor out the perfect squares by recognizing that \(\sqrt{a^2} = a\). For example, \(\sqrt{64} = \sqrt{16 \times 4} = \sqrt{4^2 \times 2^2} = 4 \times 2 = 8\).