Cards | 10 |

Topics | Absolute Value, Adding & Subtracting Fractions, Defining Exponents, Defining Radicals, Exponent to a Power, Factors & Multiples, Least Common Multiple, Percentages, Sequence, Simplifying Radicals |

The absolute value is the positive magnitude of a particular number or variable and is indicated by two vertical lines: \(\left|-5\right| = 5\). In the case of a variable absolute value (\(\left|a\right| = 5\)) the value of a can be either positive or negative (a = -5 or a = 5).

Fractions must share a **common denominator** in order to be added or subtracted. The common denominator is the least common multiple of all the denominators.

An exponent (cb^{e}) consists of **coefficient** (c) and a **base** (b) raised to a **power** (e). The exponent indicates the number of times that the base is multiplied by itself. A base with an exponent of 1 equals the base (b^{1} = b) and a base with an exponent of 0 equals 1 ( (b^{0} = 1).

Radicals (or **roots**) are the opposite operation of applying exponents. With exponents, you're multiplying a base by itself some number of times while with roots you're dividing the base by itself some number of times. A radical term looks like \(\sqrt[d]{r}\) and consists of a **radicand** (r) and a **degree** (d). The degree is the number of times the radicand is divided by itself. If no degree is specified, the degree defaults to 2 (a **square root**).

To raise a term with an exponent to another exponent, retain the base and multiply the exponents: (x^{2})^{3} = x^{(2x3)} = x^{6}

A factor is a positive integer that divides evenly into a given number. The factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, and 8. A multiple is a number that is the product of that number and an integer. The multiples of 8 are 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

The least common multiple (LCM) is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of two or more integers.

Percentages are ratios of an amount compared to 100. The percent change of an old to new value is equal to 100% x \({ new - old \over old }\).

A sequence is a group of ordered numbers. An **arithmetic sequence** is a sequence in which each successive number is equal to the number before it plus some constant number.

The radicand of a simplified radical has no perfect square factors. A **perfect square** is the product of a number multiplied by itself (squared). To simplify a radical, factor out the perfect squares by recognizing that \(\sqrt{a^2} = a\). For example, \(\sqrt{64} = \sqrt{16 \times 4} = \sqrt{4^2 \times 2^2} = 4 \times 2 = 8\).