Cards | 10 |

Topics | Absolute Value, Adding & Subtracting Radicals, Averages, Defining Exponents, Factorials, Least Common Multiple, Rational Numbers, Scientific Notation, Simplifying Radicals |

The absolute value is the positive magnitude of a particular number or variable and is indicated by two vertical lines: \(\left|-5\right| = 5\). In the case of a variable absolute value (\(\left|a\right| = 5\)) the value of a can be either positive or negative (a = -5 or a = 5).

To add or subtract radicals, the degree and radicand must be the same. For example, \(2\sqrt{3} + 3\sqrt{3} = 5\sqrt{3}\) but \(2\sqrt{2} + 2\sqrt{3}\) cannot be added because they have different radicands.

The average (or **mean**) of a group of terms is the sum of the terms divided by the number of terms. Average = \({a_1 + a_2 + ... + a_n \over n}\)

An exponent (cb^{e}) consists of **coefficient** (c) and a **base** (b) raised to a **power** (e). The exponent indicates the number of times that the base is multiplied by itself. A base with an exponent of 1 equals the base (b^{1} = b) and a base with an exponent of 0 equals 1 ( (b^{0} = 1).

A factorial has the form n! and is the product of the integer (n) and all the positive integers below it. For example, 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120.

The least common multiple (LCM) is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of two or more integers.

A rational number (or fraction) is represented as a ratio between two integers, a and b, and has the form \({a \over b}\) where a is the **numerator** and b is the **denominator**. An **improper fraction** (\({5 \over 3} \)) has a numerator with a greater absolute value than the denominator and can be converted into a **mixed number** (\(1 {2 \over 3} \)) which has a whole number part and a fractional part.

Scientific notation is a method of writing very small or very large numbers. The first part will be a number between one and ten (typically a decimal) and the second part will be a power of 10. For example, 98,760 in scientific notation is 9.876 x 10^{4} with the 4 indicating the number of places the decimal point was moved to the left. A power of 10 with a negative exponent indicates that the decimal point was moved to the right. For example, 0.0123 in scientific notation is 1.23 x 10^{-2}.

The radicand of a simplified radical has no perfect square factors. A **perfect square** is the product of a number multiplied by itself (squared). To simplify a radical, factor out the perfect squares by recognizing that \(\sqrt{a^2} = a\). For example, \(\sqrt{64} = \sqrt{16 \times 4} = \sqrt{4^2 \times 2^2} = 4 \times 2 = 8\).