Cards | 10 |

Topics | Absolute Value, Defining Exponents, Distributive Property - Multiplication, Greatest Common Factor, Integers, Least Common Multiple, Negative Exponent, Prime Number, Probability, Simplifying Radicals |

The absolute value is the positive magnitude of a particular number or variable and is indicated by two vertical lines: \(\left|-5\right| = 5\). In the case of a variable absolute value (\(\left|a\right| = 5\)) the value of a can be either positive or negative (a = -5 or a = 5).

An exponent (cb^{e}) consists of **coefficient** (c) and a **base** (b) raised to a **power** (e). The exponent indicates the number of times that the base is multiplied by itself. A base with an exponent of 1 equals the base (b^{1} = b) and a base with an exponent of 0 equals 1 ( (b^{0} = 1).

The distributive property for multiplication helps in solving expressions like a(b + c). It specifies that the result of multiplying one number by the sum or difference of two numbers can be obtained by multiplying each number individually and then totaling the results: a(b + c) = ab + ac. For example, 4(10-5) = (4 x 10) - (4 x 5) = 40 - 20 = 20.

The greatest common factor (GCF) is the greatest factor that divides two integers.

An integer is any whole number, including zero. An integer can be either positive or negative. Examples include -77, -1, 0, 55, 119.

The least common multiple (LCM) is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of two or more integers.

A negative exponent indicates the number of times that the base is divided by itself. To convert a negative exponent to a positive exponent, calculate the positive exponent then take the reciprocal: \(b^{-e} = { 1 \over b^e }\). For example, \(3^{-2} = {1 \over 3^2} = {1 \over 9}\)

A prime number is an integer greater than 1 that has no factors other than 1 and itself. Examples of prime numbers include 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11.

Probability is the numerical likelihood that a specific outcome will occur. Probability = \({ \text{outcomes of interest} \over \text{possible outcomes}}\). To find the probability that two events will occur, find the probability of each and multiply them together.

The radicand of a simplified radical has no perfect square factors. A **perfect square** is the product of a number multiplied by itself (squared). To simplify a radical, factor out the perfect squares by recognizing that \(\sqrt{a^2} = a\). For example, \(\sqrt{64} = \sqrt{16 \times 4} = \sqrt{4^2 \times 2^2} = 4 \times 2 = 8\).