Cards | 10 |

Topics | Defining Exponents, Exponent to a Power, Least Common Multiple, Percentages, Rates, Rational Numbers, Ratios, Sequence, Simplifying Radicals |

An exponent (cb^{e}) consists of **coefficient** (c) and a **base** (b) raised to a **power** (e). The exponent indicates the number of times that the base is multiplied by itself. A base with an exponent of 1 equals the base (b^{1} = b) and a base with an exponent of 0 equals 1 ( (b^{0} = 1).

To raise a term with an exponent to another exponent, retain the base and multiply the exponents: (x^{2})^{3} = x^{(2x3)} = x^{6}

The least common multiple (LCM) is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of two or more integers.

Percentages are ratios of an amount compared to 100. The percent change of an old to new value is equal to 100% x \({ new - old \over old }\).

A rate is a ratio that compares two related quantities. Common rates are speed = \({distance \over time}\), flow = \({amount \over time}\), and defect = \({errors \over units}\).

A rational number (or fraction) is represented as a ratio between two integers, a and b, and has the form \({a \over b}\) where a is the **numerator** and b is the **denominator**. An **improper fraction** (\({5 \over 3} \)) has a numerator with a greater absolute value than the denominator and can be converted into a **mixed number** (\(1 {2 \over 3} \)) which has a whole number part and a fractional part.

Ratios relate one quantity to another and are presented using a colon or as a fraction. For example, 2:3 or \({2 \over 3}\) would be the ratio of red to green marbles if a jar contained two red marbles for every three green marbles.

A sequence is a group of ordered numbers. An **arithmetic sequence** is a sequence in which each successive number is equal to the number before it plus some constant number.

The radicand of a simplified radical has no perfect square factors. A **perfect square** is the product of a number multiplied by itself (squared). To simplify a radical, factor out the perfect squares by recognizing that \(\sqrt{a^2} = a\). For example, \(\sqrt{64} = \sqrt{16 \times 4} = \sqrt{4^2 \times 2^2} = 4 \times 2 = 8\).