Cards | 10 |

Topics | Commutative Property, Defining Exponents, Distributive Property - Division, Exponent to a Power, Greatest Common Factor, Integers, Negative Exponent, Percentages, Ratios, Simplifying Fractions |

The commutative property states that, when adding or multiplying numbers, the order in which they're added or multiplied does not matter. For example, 3 + 4 and 4 + 3 give the same result, as do 3 x 4 and 4 x 3.

An exponent (cb^{e}) consists of **coefficient** (c) and a **base** (b) raised to a **power** (e). The exponent indicates the number of times that the base is multiplied by itself. A base with an exponent of 1 equals the base (b^{1} = b) and a base with an exponent of 0 equals 1 ( (b^{0} = 1).

The distributive property for division helps in solving expressions like \({b + c \over a}\). It specifies that the result of dividing a fraction with multiple terms in the numerator and one term in the denominator can be obtained by dividing each term individually and then totaling the results: \({b + c \over a} = {b \over a} + {c \over a}\). For example, \({a^3 + 6a^2 \over a^2} = {a^3 \over a^2} + {6a^2 \over a^2} = a + 6\).

To raise a term with an exponent to another exponent, retain the base and multiply the exponents: (x^{2})^{3} = x^{(2x3)} = x^{6}

The greatest common factor (GCF) is the greatest factor that divides two integers.

An integer is any whole number, including zero. An integer can be either positive or negative. Examples include -77, -1, 0, 55, 119.

A negative exponent indicates the number of times that the base is divided by itself. To convert a negative exponent to a positive exponent, calculate the positive exponent then take the reciprocal: \(b^{-e} = { 1 \over b^e }\). For example, \(3^{-2} = {1 \over 3^2} = {1 \over 9}\)

Percentages are ratios of an amount compared to 100. The percent change of an old to new value is equal to 100% x \({ new - old \over old }\).

Ratios relate one quantity to another and are presented using a colon or as a fraction. For example, 2:3 or \({2 \over 3}\) would be the ratio of red to green marbles if a jar contained two red marbles for every three green marbles.

Fractions are generally presented with the numerator and denominator as small as is possible meaning there is no number, except one, that can be divided evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. To reduce a fraction to lowest terms, divide the numerator and denominator by their greatest common factor (GCF).