Cards | 10 |

Topics | Battery Configurations, Insulators, Integrated Circuits, Ohm's Law, Open & Closed Circuits, Parallel Circuit, Power, Resistance |

Batteries can be connected together in various combinations to increase their total voltage and/or total current. Connecting batteries in **series** combines their voltage while keeping their current the same, connecting batteries in **parallel** combines their current while keeping their voltage the same, and using a **series-parallel** configuration, half the batteries can be connected in series and half in parallel to combine both voltage and current.

Insulators have valence shells that are more than half full of electrons and, as such, are tightly bound to the nucleus and difficult to move from one atom to another.

Circuits containing transistors are packaged into **integrated circuit** chips that allow encapsulating complex circuit designs (CPU, memory, I/O) for easier integration into electronic devices and machines.

Ohm's law specifies the relationship between voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R) in an electrical circuit: **V = IR**.

A closed circuit is a complete loop or path that electricity follows. It consists of a source of voltage, a load, and connective conductors. If the circuit is interrupted, if a wire is disconnected or cut for example, it becomes an open circuit and no electricity will flow.

In a parallel circuit, each load occupies a separate parallel path in the circuit and the input voltage is fully applied to each path. Unlike a series circuit where current (I) is the same at all points in the circuit, in a parallel circuit, voltage (V) is the same across each parallel branch of the circuit but current differs in each branch depending on the load (resistance) present.

Electrical power is measured in watts (W) and is calculated by multiplying the voltage (V) applied to a circuit by the resulting current (I) that flows in the circuit: **P = IV**. In addition to measuring production capacity, power also measures the rate of energy consumption and many loads are rated for their consumption capacity. For example, a 60W lightbulb utilizes 60W of energy to produce the equivalent of 60W of heat and light energy.

Resistance is opposition to the flow of current and is measured in **ohms** (Ω). One ohm is defined as the amount of resistance that will allow one ampere of current to flow if one volt of voltage is applied. As resistance increases, current decreases as resistance and current are inversely proportional.