Cards | 10 |

Topics | Alternating Current (AC), Battery Configurations, Diodes, Direct Current (DC), Inductors, Ohm's Law, Open & Closed Circuits, Transformers, Voltage |

In contrast to the constant one-way flow of direct current, alternating current changes direction many times each second. Electricity is delivered from power stations to customers as AC because it provides a more efficient way to transport electricity over long distances.

Batteries can be connected together in various combinations to increase their total voltage and/or total current. Connecting batteries in **series** combines their voltage while keeping their current the same, connecting batteries in **parallel** combines their current while keeping their voltage the same, and using a **series-parallel** configuration, half the batteries can be connected in series and half in parallel to combine both voltage and current.

A diode allows current to pass easily in one direction and blocks current in the other direction. Diodes are commonly used for **rectification** which is the conversion of alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). Because a diode only allows current flow in one direction, it will pass either the upper or lower half of AC waves (**half-wave rectification**) creating pulsating DC. Multiple diodes can be connected together to utilize both halves of the AC signal in **full-wave rectification**.

Direct current flows in only one direction in a circuit, from the negative terminal of the voltage source to the positive. A common source of direct current (DC) is a battery.

An inductor is coiled wire that stores electric energy in the form of magnetic energy and resists changes in the electric current flowing through it. If current is increasing, the inductor produces a voltage that slows the increase and, if current is decreasing, the magnetic energy in the coil opposes the decrease to keep the current flowing longer. In contrast to capacitors, inductors allow DC to pass easily but resist the flow of AC.

Ohm's law specifies the relationship between voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R) in an electrical circuit: **V = IR**.

A closed circuit is a complete loop or path that electricity follows. It consists of a source of voltage, a load, and connective conductors. If the circuit is interrupted, if a wire is disconnected or cut for example, it becomes an open circuit and no electricity will flow.

A transformer utilizes an inductor to increase or decrease the voltage in a circuit. AC flowing in a coil wrapped around an iron core magnetizes the core causing it to produce a magnetic field. This magnetic field generates a voltage in a nearby coil of wire and, depending on the number of turns in the wire of the **primary** (source) and **secondary** coils and their proximity, voltage is induced in the secondary coil.

Voltage (V) is the electrical potential difference between two points. Electrons will flow as current from areas of high potential (concentration of electrons) to areas of low potential. Voltage and current are directly proportional in that the higher the voltage applied to a conductor the higher the current that will result.