|Topics||Blood Types, Cell Division, Consumers, Domain, Fats, Geologic Time Scale, Health Benefits of Vitamins & Minerals, Liquid, Terrestrial Planets, Tertiary Consumers|
Blood is categorized into four different types (A, B, AB, and O) based on the type of antigens found on the outside of the red blood cells. Additionally, each type can be negative or positive based on whether or not the cells have an antigen called the Rh factor.
Cell division is the process by which cells replicate genetic material in the nucleus. Cell division consists of several phases:
|interphase||chromosomes replicate into chromatids and the cell grows|
|prophase||chromatids pair up|
|metaphase||paired chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell|
|anaphase||cell elongates and nucleus begins to separate|
|telophase||separation of nucleus is complete resulting in two new nuclei|
|cytokinesis||cytoplasm and cell membranes complete their separation resulting in two separate cells|
Most animals consume other organisms to survive. Consumers (heterotrophs) are divided into three types, primary, secondary, and tertiary, based on their place in the food chain.
The broadest classification of life splits all organisms into three groups called domains. The three domains of life are bacteria, archaea and eukaryota.
Like carbohydrates, fats provide energy to the body. The difference is energy from fats tends to be longer burning as opposed to the quick fuel provided by carbohydrates. Fats come in three types, saturated (meats, shellfish, eggs, milk), monounsaturated (olives, almonds, avocados), and polyunsaturated (vegetable oils). Saturated fats can raise LDL ("bad") cholesterol while unsaturated fats can decrease it.
The Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old and its history is divided into time periods based on the events that took place and the forms of life that were dominant during those periods. The largest graduation of time is the eon and each eon is subdivided into eras, eras into periods, periods into epochs, and epochs into ages.
|Vitamin / Mineral||Sources||Health Benefits|
|Calcium||Dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), spinach.||Aids bone growth and repair, muscle function.|
|Iron||Red meat, beans, whole grains.||Allows red blood cells to transfer oxygen to body tissues.|
|Magnesium||Nuts, whole grains, green leafy vegetables.||Muscle, nerve, and enzyme function.|
|Potassium||Bananas, nuts, seeds.||Helps balance fluid levels in the body.|
|Vitamin A||Liver, milk, eggs, carrots.||Vision, immune system, cell growth.|
|Vitamin C||Green and red peppers, citrus fruits, broccoli.||Collagen formation, immune system function, antioxidant (helps protect cells from damage).|
|Vitamin D||Exposure to sunlight.||Helps calcium strengthen bones, muscle, nerve, and immune system function.|
In the liquid state, molecules flow freely around each other and exist at a higher temperature range than the same substance in a solid state. Liquids maintain a constant volume but their shape depends upon the shape of their container.
The four planets closest to the Sun (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) are called terrestrial (Earth-like) planets because, like the Earth, they're solid with inner metal cores covered by rocky surfaces.
Tertiary consumers eat primary consumers and secondary consumers and are typically carnivorous predators. Tertiary consumers may also be omnivores. Examples include wolves, sharks, and human beings.