|Topics||Acidity, Autonomic Nervous System, Biosphere, DNA, Fats, Health Benefits of Vitamins & Minerals, Light Waves, Pulmonary Artery & Vein, Types of Rock|
An acid is a substance that gives up positively charged hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. A base (alkaline) gives up negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. pH is a scale that measures of how basic or acidic a solution is. Numbered from 0 to 14, solutions with a pH of 7 are neutral, less than 7 are acidic, more than 7 are alkaline.
Part of the peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary activity in the heart, stomach, and intestines.
The biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships. This includes their interactions with the lithosphere (the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle), hydrosphere (all surface water), and atmosphere (the envelope of gases surrounding the planet).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the molecule that contains genetic information. DNA is encoded through a combination of nucleotides that bind together in a specific double helix pattern.
Like carbohydrates, fats provide energy to the body. The difference is energy from fats tends to be longer burning as opposed to the quick fuel provided by carbohydrates. Fats come in three types, saturated (meats, shellfish, eggs, milk), monounsaturated (olives, almonds, avocados), and polyunsaturated (vegetable oils). Saturated fats can raise LDL ("bad") cholesterol while unsaturated fats can decrease it.
|Vitamin / Mineral||Sources||Health Benefits|
|Calcium||Dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), spinach.||Aids bone growth and repair, muscle function.|
|Iron||Red meat, beans, whole grains.||Allows red blood cells to transfer oxygen to body tissues.|
|Magnesium||Nuts, whole grains, green leafy vegetables.||Muscle, nerve, and enzyme function.|
|Potassium||Bananas, nuts, seeds.||Helps balance fluid levels in the body.|
|Vitamin A||Liver, milk, eggs, carrots.||Vision, immune system, cell growth.|
|Vitamin C||Green and red peppers, citrus fruits, broccoli.||Collagen formation, immune system function, antioxidant (helps protect cells from damage).|
|Vitamin D||Exposure to sunlight.||Helps calcium strengthen bones, muscle, nerve, and immune system function.|
Unlike mechanical sound waves that require a physical medium for propagation, light waves are electromagnetic and can travel through empty space. Light waves are also much faster, travelling at 186,000 m/s vs. 343 m/s for sound waves.
The two largest veins in the body, the venae cavae, pass blood to the right ventricle which pumps the blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. Blood picks up oxygen in the lungs and returns it to the left atrium via the pulmonary vein.
The Earth's rocks fall into three categories based on how they're formed. Igneous rock (granite, basalt, obsidian) is formed from the hardening of molten rock (lava), sedimentary rock (shale, sandstone, coal) is formed by the gradual despositing and cementing of rock and other debris, and metamorphic rock (marble, slate, quartzite) which is formed when existing rock is altered though pressure, temperature, or chemical processes.