General Science Flash Card Set 685152

Cards 10
Topics Compound, Core, Crust, Cytoplasm, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Momentum, Refraction, Stationary Front

Study Guide


A compound is a substance containing two or more different chemical elements bound together by a chemical bond. In covalent compounds, electrons are shared between atoms. In ionic compounds, one atom borrows an electron from another atom resulting in two ions (electrically charged atoms) of opposite polarities that then become bonded electrostatically.


The Earth's core is divided into the liquid outer core (1,430 miles or 2,300 km radius) and the solid inner core (745 miles or 1,200 km radius).


The crust is the Earth's outermost layer and is divided into oceanic and continental types. Oceanic crust is 3 miles (5 km) to 6 miles (10 km) thick and is composed primarily of denser rock. Continental crust is 20 to 30 miles (30 to 50 km) thick and composed primarily of less dense rock. The crust makes up approximately one percent of the Earth's total volume.


The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell contains the genetic material of the cell and is surrounded by cytoplasm which contains many organelles. These include:

Organelle Function
ribosomes produce proteins
mitochondria produce energy
endoplasmic reticulum helps synthesize proteins and fats
Golgi apparatus prepare proteins for use
lysosomes help the cell manage waste
centrosomes guide cell reproduction

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum covers all possible wavelengths and frequencies of radiation. From lowest frequency (longest wavelength) to highest frequency (shortest wavelength) radiation: radio waves → microwaves → infrared waves → visible light → ultraviolet light → X-rays → gamma rays.


Momentum is a measure of how difficult it is for a moving object to stop and is calculated by multiplying the object's mass by its velocity: \(\vec{p} = m\vec{v}\). Like velocity, momentum is a vector quantity as it expresses force applied in a specific direction.


Because different materials have different refractive indices, light changes speed when passing from one material to another. This causes the light to bend (refraction) at an angle that depends on the change in refractive index between the materials. The greater the difference, the higher the angle of refraction.

Stationary Front

When two air masses meet and neither is displaced, a stationary front is created. Stationary fronts often cause persistent cloudy wet weather.