Cards | 10 |

Topics | Boyle's Law, Conservation of Mechanical Energy, Drag, Force Lines of Action, Force of Friction, Joules, Kinetic Energy, Pascal's Law, Third-Class Lever, Wheel and Axle |

Boyle's law states that "for a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional". Expressed as a formula, that's \(\frac{P_1}{P_2} = \frac{V_2}{V_1}\)

As an object falls, its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. The principle of conservation of mechanical energy states that, as long as no other forces are applied, total mechanical energy (PE + KE) of the object will remain constant at all points in its descent.

Drag is friction that opposes movement through a fluid like liquid or air. The amount of drag depends on the shape and speed of the object with slower objects experiencing less drag than faster objects and more aerodynamic objects experiencing less drag than those with a large leading surface area.

**Collinear** forces act along the same line of action, **concurrent** forces pass through a common point and **coplanar** forces act in a common plane.

The formula for force of friction (F_{f}) is the same whether kinetic or static friction applies: **F _{f = }μF_{N}**. To distinguish between kinetic and static friction, μ

The Joule (J) is the standard unit of energy and has the unit \({kg \times m^2} \over s^2\).

Kinetic energy is the energy of movement and is a function of the mass of an object and its speed: \(KE = {1 \over 2}mv^2\) where m is mass in kilograms, v is speed in meters per second, and KE is in joules. The most impactful quantity to kinetic energy is velocity as an increase in mass increases KE **linearly** while an increase in speed increases KE **exponentially**.

Pascal's law states that a pressure change occurring anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid such that the same change occurs everywhere. For a hydraulic system, this means that a pressure applied to the input of the system will increase the pressure everywhere in the system.

A third-class lever is used to increase distance traveled by an object in the same direction as the force applied. The fulcrum is at one end of the lever, the object at the other, and the force is applied between them. This lever does not impart a mechanical advantage as the effort force must be greater than the load but does impart **extra speed** to the load. Examples of third-class levers are shovels and tweezers.

A wheel and axle uses two different diameter wheels mounted to a connecting axle. Force is applied to the larger wheel and large movements of this wheel result in small movements in the smaller wheel. Because a larger movement distance is being translated to a smaller distance, force is increased with a mechanical advantage equal to the **ratio of the diameters of the wheels**. An example of a wheel and axle is the steering wheel of a car.