Cards | 10 |

Focus | Principles |

Topics | Boyle's Law, Inertia, Mass, Mechanics, Net Force, Newton's Second Law of Motion, Universal Gravitation, Weight |

Boyle's law states that "for a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional". Expressed as a formula, that's \(\frac{P_1}{P_2} = \frac{V_2}{V_1}\)

The more mass a substance has the more force is required to move it or to change its direction. This resistance to changes in direction is known as inertia.

Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object. In general, larger objects have larger mass than smaller objects but mass ultimately depends on how compact (**dense**) a substance is.

Mechanics deals with **motion** and the forces that produce motion.

In mechanics, multiple forces are often acting on a particular object and, taken together, produce the net force acting on that object. Like force, net force is a **vector quantity** in that it has magnitude and direction.

Newton's Second Law of Motion states that "The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object." This Law describes the **linear relationship** between mass and acceleration when it comes to force and leads to the formula **F = ma** or force equals mass multiplied by rate of acceleration.

Newton's Law of Univeral Gravitation defines the general formula for the attraction of gravity between two objects: \(\vec{F_{g}} = { Gm_{1}m_{2} \over r^2}\) . In the specific case of an object falling toward Earth, the **acceleration due to gravity** (g) is approximately 9.8 m/s^{2}.

Mass is an intrinsic property of matter and does not vary. Weight is the force exerted on the mass of an object due to gravity and a specific case of Newton's Second Law of Motion. Replace force with weight and acceleration with acceleration due to gravity on Earth (g) and the result is the formula for weight: **W = mg** or, substituting for g, weight equals mass multiplied by 9.8 m/s^{2}.