# Marine Corps 0451 Air Delivery Specialist ASVAB Study Guide

 Branch Marine Corps MOS 0451 Title Air Delivery Specialist Description Airborne and air delivery specialists are responsible for the maintenance of all life safety equipment relating to operations. In addition, they will assist in preparing the supplies equipment necessary to deliver personnel and equipment via conduct subsequent equipment recovery and throughput responsible for performing parachute repack as well as and corrective maintenance on all airdrop equipment, and will evaluating proposed Landing Zone/Drop Zones in order to and execution of effective personnel, supplies, and equipment airborne, airdrop and equipment recovery operations. They will various supervisory duties in support of airborne and airdrop include, but not limited to, mission planning, Jumpmaster (military freefall and static line), Drop Zone Safety and Malfunctions Officers.Repair an A-22 cargo bag 10-6, Perform inspection and maintenance on all air items, Perform a rigger-roll on parachutes ,Perform a suspension line splice, Shake out a personnel parachute, Perform a personnel jump from an aircraft in flight., Conduct a Technical Rigger Inspection, Pack a 68 inch diameter pilot parachute ,Pack a 12 or 26 foot high velocity cargo parachute, Pack a 15 or 22 foot cargo extraction parachute utilizing the pack in process inspection, Pack a T-11R Reserve Parachute utilizing the pack in process inspection, Pack an MC-6 troop back parachute, Pack a sling/extraction line panel for the low velocity method of airdrop, Place a personnel or cargo parachute into service, Pack a G-14 cargo parachute, Rig an A-22 cargo bag for the low or high velocity method of airdrop, Prepare an M-l Cargo Parachute Release Assembly, Rig individual equipment for a combat, Provide aerial delivery of supplies using a Container Delivery System (CDS), Prepare an Extraction Force Transfer Coupling (EFTC), Support low altitude parachute operationsPrepare an aircraft load plan for airdrop loads, Determine aircraft configuration for high altitude low opening, and low level static line personnel parachute operations, determine the equipment and supplies required to support an airdrop operation, maintain all pertinent publications for use in airdrop, monitor the in-storage quality control program, conduct a pack-in-process inspection for personnel or cargo parachute, conduct an in-storage inspection, conduct a routine inspection on a packed or rigged for airdrop item, conduct a final shop inspection of airdrop loads, conduct a malfunction inspection, perform maintenance and inspection on all helicopter rope suspension training equipment, repair a type v platform, perform preventative maintenance on a sewing machine, perform maintenance in inspection on all altimeters, repair a personnel parachute harness container, perform maintenance and inspection on all parachutist oxygen systems, supervise the operations of an airdrop equipment repair activity, perform maintenance and inspection on the military cybernetic parachute release system, plan and coordinate aircraft support for aerial delivery operations,Perform the duties as a static line jumpmaster, perform the duties as a military freefall jumpmaster, coordinate positioning of airdrop facilities and assets, conduct a joint airdrop inspection, coordinate and support high altitude high opening/low opening low altitude ops, perform the duties of a drop zone safety officer, perform the duties of malfunction NCO, perform the duties of jumpmaster, tandem master, assistant jumpmaster, or safety NCO, establish a drop zone, label hazardous cargo rigged for airdrop, rig a parachutist drop bag for combat equipment jump, assemble a type v platform for airdrop, Subtests Arithmetic Reasoning, Paragraph Comprehension, Word Knowledge

# Arithmetic Reasoning

• 13 Questions
• 54 Problems
• 36 Flash Cards

### Fundamentals

##### Number Properties
###### Integers

An integer is any whole number, including zero. An integer can be either positive or negative. Examples include -77, -1, 0, 55, 119.

###### Rational Numbers

A rational number (or fraction) is represented as a ratio between two integers, a and b, and has the form $${a \over b}$$ where a is the numerator and b is the denominator. An improper fraction ($${5 \over 3}$$) has a numerator with a greater absolute value than the denominator and can be converted into a mixed number ($$1 {2 \over 3}$$) which has a whole number part and a fractional part.

###### Absolute Value

The absolute value is the positive magnitude of a particular number or variable and is indicated by two vertical lines: $$\left|-5\right| = 5$$. In the case of a variable absolute value ($$\left|a\right| = 5$$) the value of a can be either positive or negative (a = -5 or a = 5).

###### Factors & Multiples

A factor is a positive integer that divides evenly into a given number. The factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, and 8. A multiple is a number that is the product of that number and an integer. The multiples of 8 are 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

###### Greatest Common Factor

The greatest common factor (GCF) is the greatest factor that divides two integers.

###### Least Common Multiple

The least common multiple (LCM) is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of two or more integers.

###### Prime Number

A prime number is an integer greater than 1 that has no factors other than 1 and itself. Examples of prime numbers include 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11.

##### Operations on Fractions
###### Simplifying Fractions

Fractions are generally presented with the numerator and denominator as small as is possible meaning there is no number, except one, that can be divided evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. To reduce a fraction to lowest terms, divide the numerator and denominator by their greatest common factor (GCF).

Fractions must share a common denominator in order to be added or subtracted. The common denominator is the least common multiple of all the denominators.

###### Multiplying & Dividing Fractions

To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators together and then multiply the denominators together. To divide fractions, invert the second fraction (get the reciprocal) and multiply it by the first.

##### Operations on Exponents
###### Defining Exponents

An exponent (cbe) consists of coefficient (c) and a base (b) raised to a power (e). The exponent indicates the number of times that the base is multiplied by itself. A base with an exponent of 1 equals the base (b1 = b) and a base with an exponent of 0 equals 1 ( (b0 = 1).

To add or subtract terms with exponents, both the base and the exponent must be the same. If the base and the exponent are the same, add or subtract the coefficients and retain the base and exponent. For example, 3x2 + 2x2 = 5x2 and 3x2 - 2x2 = x2 but x2 + x4 and x4 - x2 cannot be combined.

###### Multiplying & Dividing Exponents

To multiply terms with the same base, multiply the coefficients and add the exponents. To divide terms with the same base, divide the coefficients and subtract the exponents. For example, 3x2 x 2x2 = 6x4 and $${8x^5 \over 4x^2}$$ = 2x(5-2) = 2x3.

###### Exponent to a Power

To raise a term with an exponent to another exponent, retain the base and multiply the exponents: (x2)3 = x(2x3) = x6

###### Negative Exponent

A negative exponent indicates the number of times that the base is divided by itself. To convert a negative exponent to a positive exponent, calculate the positive exponent then take the reciprocal: $$b^{-e} = { 1 \over b^e }$$. For example, $$3^{-2} = {1 \over 3^2} = {1 \over 9}$$

Radicals (or roots) are the opposite operation of applying exponents. With exponents, you're multiplying a base by itself some number of times while with roots you're dividing the base by itself some number of times. A radical term looks like $$\sqrt[d]{r}$$ and consists of a radicand (r) and a degree (d). The degree is the number of times the radicand is divided by itself. If no degree is specified, the degree defaults to 2 (a square root).

The radicand of a simplified radical has no perfect square factors. A perfect square is the product of a number multiplied by itself (squared). To simplify a radical, factor out the perfect squares by recognizing that $$\sqrt{a^2} = a$$. For example, $$\sqrt{64} = \sqrt{16 \times 4} = \sqrt{4^2 \times 2^2} = 4 \times 2 = 8$$.

To add or subtract radicals, the degree and radicand must be the same. For example, $$2\sqrt{3} + 3\sqrt{3} = 5\sqrt{3}$$ but $$2\sqrt{2} + 2\sqrt{3}$$ cannot be added because they have different radicands.

To multiply or divide radicals, multiply or divide the coefficients and radicands separately: $$x\sqrt{a} \times y\sqrt{b} = xy\sqrt{ab}$$ and $${x\sqrt{a} \over y\sqrt{b}} = {x \over y}\sqrt{a \over b}$$

###### Square Root of a Fraction

To take the square root of a fraction, break the fraction into two separate roots then calculate the square root of the numerator and denominator separately. For example, $$\sqrt{9 \over 16}$$ = $${\sqrt{9}} \over {\sqrt{16}}$$ = $${3 \over 4}$$

##### Miscellaneous
###### Scientific Notation

Scientific notation is a method of writing very small or very large numbers. The first part will be a number between one and ten (typically a decimal) and the second part will be a power of 10. For example, 98,760 in scientific notation is 9.876 x 104 with the 4 indicating the number of places the decimal point was moved to the left. A power of 10 with a negative exponent indicates that the decimal point was moved to the right. For example, 0.0123 in scientific notation is 1.23 x 10-2.

###### Factorials

A factorial has the form n! and is the product of the integer (n) and all the positive integers below it. For example, 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120.

### Applications

##### Order of Operations
###### PEMDAS

Arithmetic operations must be performed in the following specific order:

1. Parentheses
2. Exponents
3. Multiplication and Division (from L to R)
4. Addition and Subtraction (from L to R)

The acronym PEMDAS can help remind you of the order.

###### Distributive Property - Multiplication

The distributive property for multiplication helps in solving expressions like a(b + c). It specifies that the result of multiplying one number by the sum or difference of two numbers can be obtained by multiplying each number individually and then totaling the results: a(b + c) = ab + ac. For example, 4(10-5) = (4 x 10) - (4 x 5) = 40 - 20 = 20.

###### Distributive Property - Division

The distributive property for division helps in solving expressions like $${b + c \over a}$$. It specifies that the result of dividing a fraction with multiple terms in the numerator and one term in the denominator can be obtained by dividing each term individually and then totaling the results: $${b + c \over a} = {b \over a} + {c \over a}$$. For example, $${a^3 + 6a^2 \over a^2} = {a^3 \over a^2} + {6a^2 \over a^2} = a + 6$$.

###### Commutative Property

The commutative property states that, when adding or multiplying numbers, the order in which they're added or multiplied does not matter. For example, 3 + 4 and 4 + 3 give the same result, as do 3 x 4 and 4 x 3.

##### Ratios
###### Ratios

Ratios relate one quantity to another and are presented using a colon or as a fraction. For example, 2:3 or $${2 \over 3}$$ would be the ratio of red to green marbles if a jar contained two red marbles for every three green marbles.

###### Proportions

A proportion is a statement that two ratios are equal: a:b = c:d, $${a \over b} = {c \over d}$$. To solve proportions with a variable term, cross-multiply: $${a \over 8} = {3 \over 6}$$, 6a = 24, a = 4.

###### Rates

A rate is a ratio that compares two related quantities. Common rates are speed = $${distance \over time}$$, flow = $${amount \over time}$$, and defect = $${errors \over units}$$.

###### Percentages

Percentages are ratios of an amount compared to 100. The percent change of an old to new value is equal to 100% x $${ new - old \over old }$$.

##### Statistics
###### Averages

The average (or mean) of a group of terms is the sum of the terms divided by the number of terms. Average = $${a_1 + a_2 + ... + a_n \over n}$$

###### Sequence

A sequence is a group of ordered numbers. An arithmetic sequence is a sequence in which each successive number is equal to the number before it plus some constant number.

###### Probability

Probability is the numerical likelihood that a specific outcome will occur. Probability = $${ \text{outcomes of interest} \over \text{possible outcomes}}$$. To find the probability that two events will occur, find the probability of each and multiply them together.

##### Word Problems
###### Practice

Many of the arithmetic reasoning problems on the ASVAB will be in the form of word problems that will test not only the concepts in this study guide but those in Math Knowledge as well. Practice these word problems to get comfortable with translating the text into math equations and then solving those equations.