# Air Force 1C331 Command Post ASVAB Study Guide

 Branch Air Force MOS 1C331 Title Command Post Description Manages and performs activities within fixed ground, mobile and airborne command and control (C2) facilities such as installation and expeditionary command posts (CP), operations centers, rescue coordination centers, and Combatant Command and Major Command (COCOM/MAJCOM) command centers. Provides command, control, communications, and information support throughout the full spectrum of operations to include peacetime, emergency and disaster situations, crisis, contingency and war. Receives and relays C2 instructions and records; collects, processes, and submits manual and automated data products. Disseminates time-sensitive critical information to senior leaders and support agencies. Establishes procedures for operational reports, readiness reports, and the Status of Resources and Training System (SORTS) report. Reports international treaty compliance information. Uses communications systems and consoles to affect positive control of assigned forces and weapons systems. Supports chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE), and conventional warning and reporting activities. Ensures compliance with operations center and CP policies and procedures.Performs C2 actions to support Homeland Security, National Defense, and Air Force operations. Provides C2 of worldwide nuclear and conventional forces supporting Emergency Plans, Operations Orders, and Operations Plans. Facilitates C2 in support of the Installation Emergency Management (EM) Program. Coordinates actions to ensure prompt response during EM operations including immediate mobilization of resources and participation of agencies and organizations. Receives, processes, and disseminates emergency action messages via voice and record copy systems. Encodes, decodes, and transmits and relays presidential decisions to execute and terminate nuclear and conventional force operations. Relays C2 instructions for diversion, recall, evacuation, recovery, and reconstitution of forces. Coordinates and executes search and rescue activities. Coordinates with other agencies and organizations during planning, executing, and evaluation phases of CP operations. Initiates, receives, and takes action on alert messages. Flight-follows and manages aerospace resources and monitors mission status to include aircraft, aircrew support, transportation, maintenance support, fleet services, and passenger and cargo support. Monitors aircraft movement and relays information to and from aircrews. Coordinates mission delays with installation and external agencies. Monitors status of launch and space assets. Monitors status and location of key personnel, such as group commanders and above, to facilitate immediate communications with higher headquarters when necessary. Ensures proper use and control of resources and classified material. Develops and evaluates CP processes. Performs self-inspections. Ensures operational readiness and adherence to standards. Recommends actions to correct CP procedural deficiencies. Maintains and disseminates local and worldwide current and forecasted weather to include watches, advisories and warnings to installation populace and aerospace resources. Ensures existing directives for executing and controlling assigned forces are understood and properly applied. Prepares and submits operational, readiness, SORTS, international treaty, and aerospace asset reports. Analyzes and disseminates information derived from operational and readiness reports. Establishes procedures for operational, readiness and SORTS reporting to include developing procedures, maintaining databases, training personnel, and conducting staff assistance visits. Ensures reported data is current and accurate. Operates and monitors voice, data, and alerting systems. Develops operating instructions directing CP and lateral agency C2 activities. Develops, maintains, and initiates quick reaction checklists supporting situations such as suspected or actual sabotage, nuclear incidents, natural disasters, aircraft accidents or incidents, evacuations, dispersal, and aerospace anomalies. Receives and disseminates time-critical information to and from the commander to internal and external agencies during daily operation, natural disasters and wartime and contingency operations to affect positive control of assigned forces and weapons systems. Coordinates actions to ensure prompt response during disaster operations (pre, trans, and post), including immediate activation and recall of all resources and participating agencies and organizations. Monitors actions to preserve life, minimize damage, and restore operations following natural disasters (trans and post), accidents, wartime attacks, and military operations other than war. Coordinates, directs, and monitors actions to allow continuation or restoration of vital functions and operations. Maintains operational status displays. Maintains proficiency in C2 systems and aircraft flight following and mission management systems such as Theater Battle Management Core Systems (TBMCS) and Global Decision Support System - 2 (GDSS2). Establishes manpower, communications, equipment, and facilexperience in functions such as handling automated operational data, controlling input and output data from automated CP systems using data processing devices, and communication operations. Also, experience performing or supervising functions of CP operationsExperience managing and directing CP functions. Subtests Arithmetic Reasoning, Paragraph Comprehension, Word Knowledge

# Arithmetic Reasoning

• 13 Questions
• 54 Problems
• 36 Flash Cards

### Fundamentals

##### Number Properties
###### Integers

An integer is any whole number, including zero. An integer can be either positive or negative. Examples include -77, -1, 0, 55, 119.

###### Rational Numbers

A rational number (or fraction) is represented as a ratio between two integers, a and b, and has the form $${a \over b}$$ where a is the numerator and b is the denominator. An improper fraction ($${5 \over 3}$$) has a numerator with a greater absolute value than the denominator and can be converted into a mixed number ($$1 {2 \over 3}$$) which has a whole number part and a fractional part.

###### Absolute Value

The absolute value is the positive magnitude of a particular number or variable and is indicated by two vertical lines: $$\left|-5\right| = 5$$. In the case of a variable absolute value ($$\left|a\right| = 5$$) the value of a can be either positive or negative (a = -5 or a = 5).

###### Factors & Multiples

A factor is a positive integer that divides evenly into a given number. The factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4, and 8. A multiple is a number that is the product of that number and an integer. The multiples of 8 are 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

###### Greatest Common Factor

The greatest common factor (GCF) is the greatest factor that divides two integers.

###### Least Common Multiple

The least common multiple (LCM) is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of two or more integers.

###### Prime Number

A prime number is an integer greater than 1 that has no factors other than 1 and itself. Examples of prime numbers include 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11.

##### Operations on Fractions
###### Simplifying Fractions

Fractions are generally presented with the numerator and denominator as small as is possible meaning there is no number, except one, that can be divided evenly into both the numerator and the denominator. To reduce a fraction to lowest terms, divide the numerator and denominator by their greatest common factor (GCF).

Fractions must share a common denominator in order to be added or subtracted. The common denominator is the least common multiple of all the denominators.

###### Multiplying & Dividing Fractions

To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators together and then multiply the denominators together. To divide fractions, invert the second fraction (get the reciprocal) and multiply it by the first.

##### Operations on Exponents
###### Defining Exponents

An exponent (cbe) consists of coefficient (c) and a base (b) raised to a power (e). The exponent indicates the number of times that the base is multiplied by itself. A base with an exponent of 1 equals the base (b1 = b) and a base with an exponent of 0 equals 1 ( (b0 = 1).

To add or subtract terms with exponents, both the base and the exponent must be the same. If the base and the exponent are the same, add or subtract the coefficients and retain the base and exponent. For example, 3x2 + 2x2 = 5x2 and 3x2 - 2x2 = x2 but x2 + x4 and x4 - x2 cannot be combined.

###### Multiplying & Dividing Exponents

To multiply terms with the same base, multiply the coefficients and add the exponents. To divide terms with the same base, divide the coefficients and subtract the exponents. For example, 3x2 x 2x2 = 6x4 and $${8x^5 \over 4x^2}$$ = 2x(5-2) = 2x3.

###### Exponent to a Power

To raise a term with an exponent to another exponent, retain the base and multiply the exponents: (x2)3 = x(2x3) = x6

###### Negative Exponent

A negative exponent indicates the number of times that the base is divided by itself. To convert a negative exponent to a positive exponent, calculate the positive exponent then take the reciprocal: $$b^{-e} = { 1 \over b^e }$$. For example, $$3^{-2} = {1 \over 3^2} = {1 \over 9}$$

Radicals (or roots) are the opposite operation of applying exponents. With exponents, you're multiplying a base by itself some number of times while with roots you're dividing the base by itself some number of times. A radical term looks like $$\sqrt[d]{r}$$ and consists of a radicand (r) and a degree (d). The degree is the number of times the radicand is divided by itself. If no degree is specified, the degree defaults to 2 (a square root).

The radicand of a simplified radical has no perfect square factors. A perfect square is the product of a number multiplied by itself (squared). To simplify a radical, factor out the perfect squares by recognizing that $$\sqrt{a^2} = a$$. For example, $$\sqrt{64} = \sqrt{16 \times 4} = \sqrt{4^2 \times 2^2} = 4 \times 2 = 8$$.

To add or subtract radicals, the degree and radicand must be the same. For example, $$2\sqrt{3} + 3\sqrt{3} = 5\sqrt{3}$$ but $$2\sqrt{2} + 2\sqrt{3}$$ cannot be added because they have different radicands.

To multiply or divide radicals, multiply or divide the coefficients and radicands separately: $$x\sqrt{a} \times y\sqrt{b} = xy\sqrt{ab}$$ and $${x\sqrt{a} \over y\sqrt{b}} = {x \over y}\sqrt{a \over b}$$

###### Square Root of a Fraction

To take the square root of a fraction, break the fraction into two separate roots then calculate the square root of the numerator and denominator separately. For example, $$\sqrt{9 \over 16}$$ = $${\sqrt{9}} \over {\sqrt{16}}$$ = $${3 \over 4}$$

##### Miscellaneous
###### Scientific Notation

Scientific notation is a method of writing very small or very large numbers. The first part will be a number between one and ten (typically a decimal) and the second part will be a power of 10. For example, 98,760 in scientific notation is 9.876 x 104 with the 4 indicating the number of places the decimal point was moved to the left. A power of 10 with a negative exponent indicates that the decimal point was moved to the right. For example, 0.0123 in scientific notation is 1.23 x 10-2.

###### Factorials

A factorial has the form n! and is the product of the integer (n) and all the positive integers below it. For example, 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120.

### Applications

##### Order of Operations
###### PEMDAS

Arithmetic operations must be performed in the following specific order:

1. Parentheses
2. Exponents
3. Multiplication and Division (from L to R)
4. Addition and Subtraction (from L to R)

The acronym PEMDAS can help remind you of the order.

###### Distributive Property - Multiplication

The distributive property for multiplication helps in solving expressions like a(b + c). It specifies that the result of multiplying one number by the sum or difference of two numbers can be obtained by multiplying each number individually and then totaling the results: a(b + c) = ab + ac. For example, 4(10-5) = (4 x 10) - (4 x 5) = 40 - 20 = 20.

###### Distributive Property - Division

The distributive property for division helps in solving expressions like $${b + c \over a}$$. It specifies that the result of dividing a fraction with multiple terms in the numerator and one term in the denominator can be obtained by dividing each term individually and then totaling the results: $${b + c \over a} = {b \over a} + {c \over a}$$. For example, $${a^3 + 6a^2 \over a^2} = {a^3 \over a^2} + {6a^2 \over a^2} = a + 6$$.

###### Commutative Property

The commutative property states that, when adding or multiplying numbers, the order in which they're added or multiplied does not matter. For example, 3 + 4 and 4 + 3 give the same result, as do 3 x 4 and 4 x 3.

##### Ratios
###### Ratios

Ratios relate one quantity to another and are presented using a colon or as a fraction. For example, 2:3 or $${2 \over 3}$$ would be the ratio of red to green marbles if a jar contained two red marbles for every three green marbles.

###### Proportions

A proportion is a statement that two ratios are equal: a:b = c:d, $${a \over b} = {c \over d}$$. To solve proportions with a variable term, cross-multiply: $${a \over 8} = {3 \over 6}$$, 6a = 24, a = 4.

###### Rates

A rate is a ratio that compares two related quantities. Common rates are speed = $${distance \over time}$$, flow = $${amount \over time}$$, and defect = $${errors \over units}$$.

###### Percentages

Percentages are ratios of an amount compared to 100. The percent change of an old to new value is equal to 100% x $${ new - old \over old }$$.

##### Statistics
###### Averages

The average (or mean) of a group of terms is the sum of the terms divided by the number of terms. Average = $${a_1 + a_2 + ... + a_n \over n}$$

###### Sequence

A sequence is a group of ordered numbers. An arithmetic sequence is a sequence in which each successive number is equal to the number before it plus some constant number.

###### Probability

Probability is the numerical likelihood that a specific outcome will occur. Probability = $${ \text{outcomes of interest} \over \text{possible outcomes}}$$. To find the probability that two events will occur, find the probability of each and multiply them together.

##### Word Problems
###### Practice

Many of the arithmetic reasoning problems on the ASVAB will be in the form of word problems that will test not only the concepts in this study guide but those in Math Knowledge as well. Practice these word problems to get comfortable with translating the text into math equations and then solving those equations.